Sacred and Profane: Exploring the Relationship Between Religion and TerrorismNawreen Afaz Chaity* and Jubair Ahmad Chowdhury
Received: 25 April, 2021
Accepted: 26 May, 2021
Published: 27 May, 2021
Available in online: 27 May, 2021
Religious terrorism has become a global issue in the 21st century. Recently the world has seen an increasing number of religiously motivated terrorist activities. This article first attempts to explore the relationship between religion and terrorism, and then investigate why religion is often used as an influential tool of terrorism. The study also examines the factors that trigger young people to engage themselves in terrorist activities. This study follows a qualitative research design where primary data were collected through in-depth interviews with ten religious’ leaders from four major religions: Islam, Hinduism, Christianity, and Buddhism. Secondary data were gathered from various sources including journal articles, books, newspapers, and documentaries. The findings of the research reveals that a trivial number of deviated minds from various religions carry out terrorist activities by misinterpreting the verses of religious texts. Moreover, some interest groups influence young people in terrorist activities with the aim of serving their motives.
Keywords: Terrorism, Religious Terrorism, Jihad, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity.
- Atran, Scott. (2010). “Talking to the Enemy”. Ecco Press / HarperCollins, USA; Allen Lane Penguin, UK. ISBN 978-0-06-134490-9.
- BIPSS (2017). Local Drivers and Dynamics of Youth Radicalization in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Institute of Peace and Security Studies (BIPSS). http://bipss.org.bd/pdf/Local%20Drive.pdf BIPSS
- Blin, A., & Chaliand, G. (2007). “The history of terrorism from Antiquity to Al-Qaeda. University of California Press
- CEP (2017). Bangladesh: Extremism and Counter-Extremism. Counter Extremism Project. https://www.counterextremism.com/sites/default/files/country_pdf/BD12212017.pdf
- Dennis, A. J. (1996). The Rise of the Islamic Empire and the Threat to the West. Wyndham Hall Press, Ohio, USA. ISBN 1-55605-268-5.
- Eliad, M. (1987). The Encyclopedia of Religion, vol-7. Macmillan Publishing Company: New York.
- English Oxford Living Dictionary https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/ definition/ terrorism (Accessed 25 March 2021).
- Gold, van Bulitenen, C. Dimock, Doniger, Smith, Narayanan. (2017). Encyclopedia Britannica https://www.britannica.com/topic/Hinduism#accordion-article-contributors. (Accessed 20 March 2021).
- Glasse, Cryil. (1989). The Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. San Francisco: Harper and Row policy forum. (2008). “UN involvement against terrorism”. https://www.globalpolicy.org/us-un-and-international-law-8-24/un-involvement-against-terrorism.html. (Accessed 20 March 2021).
- Huntington, Samuel P. (1993). “The Clash of Civilizations?”. Foreign Affairs:3-27
- Huntington, Samuel P. (1996). “The Clash of Civilization and the Remaking of world order”. Simon & Schuster.ISBN-10:1451628978, ISBN-13:978-1451628975.
- Institute for Economics & Peace. Global Terrorism Index 2020: Measuring the Impact of Terrorism, Sydney, November 2020. Available from: http://visionofhumanity.org/reports
- Jayatillak, K.N. 1962. Buddhism and Peace. The Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka. No-41. Page-2
- Louay, Fatoohi. (2009). Jihad in the Qur’an (Third Edition): The Truth from the Source. Luna Plena Publishing, UK. ISBN: 978-1-906342-06-7
- Mukundananda, Swami. (2014). Bhagavat Gita..The Song of God.[Blog]. https://www.holy-bhagavad-gita.org/. (Accessed 20 March 2021)
- Nakamura, Tucci. E. Reynolds,Kitagawa, Snellagrove, S.Lopez. (2018). Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Buddhism. (Accessed 21 March 2021)
- Seda, Peta. 2007. Islam Is--: An Introduction to Islam & Its Principles. The Islamic Propagation Office in Rabwah. ISBN-10: 0971915806
- Shourie, Arun. (2012). “The world of Fatwas or the Shariah in action”. HarperColins Publishars: India. ISBN-10:9789350293423, ISBN-13: 978-9350293423
- Silberman, Israela, Dweck, Carol S., Higgins, E.Tory.(2005). “Religion and World Change: Violence and Terrorism versus Peace.” Journal of social issues, Volume61 (4):761-784. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2005.00431.x
- Silberman, Israela. Higgins, E. Tory and S. Dweck, Carol. (16November,2005). “Religion and World Change: Violence and Terrorism versus Peace.“Journal of Social Issues”, vol-61, issue-4. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2005 .00431.x
- Stefon, MaMarty. (17). Christianity. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic /Christianity. (Accessed 19 March 2021)
- United Nation Development Program (2017). “Preventing violent Extremism through promoting inclusive development, tolerance and respect for diversity: A development response to addressing radicalization and violent extremism.” http://www.undp.org
- White, Junathan R. (2012). Terrorism and Homeland Secrity. 7th edition. Wadsworth Publishing. ISBN-10: 0495913368, ISBN-13:978-0495913368.
- Kathir, Alama Imad ud Din Ibn.(2015). Tafsir Ibn Khatir(Engish).Createspace Independent Pub.
- Rapoport,David C.(September, 1984). “Fear and Trembling: Terrorism in Three Religious Traditions. The American political science review, vol.78, no.3:658-677. http://doi.org/110.2307/1961835
- Heryanto, Ariel (7 April 2006). “State Terrorism and Political Identity in Indonesia: Fatally Belonging”. Routledge
- Amir, Frayman. (14 August, 2006). ‘Religion and Culture as Motivations for Terrorism.’International institute for counter terrorism. https://www.ict.org.il/Article.aspx?ID=956#gsc.tab=0
- Krieger, Tim and Meierrieks, Daniel. (28 January 2010).” What causes terrorism?”. Public Choice (2011) 147:3-27. DOI 10.1007/s11127-010-9601-
- Anti-Terrorism Act 2009. (28 July, 2013). Government of people republic of Bangladesh.
- Odhiambo. Elijah Onyango Stanislaus. (June 2014). Religious Fundamentalism and Terrorism. Journal of Global Peace and Conflict. Vol. 2, No. 1:187-205. ISSN: 2333-584X
- Arnett, George. (2014, November 18). “Religious extremism main cause of terrorism, according to report.“The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2014/nov/18/religious- extremism-main-cause-of-terrorism-according-to-report. (Accessed 28 March 2021).
- Rausch, Cassandra. (May 2015). Fundamentalism and Terrorism. Journal of Terrorism Research.Volume 6, Issue 2:28-35
- Fortna, Virginia. (2015). “Do Terrorists Win? Rebels’ Use of Terrorism and Civil War Outcomes”. International Organization. 69(3): 519-556.
- Staff correspondence. (July 3, 2016). “Blood, Shock, Horror”. The Daily Star. https://www. thedailystar.net/frontpage/dhaka-attack/blood-shock-horror-1249471. (Accessed 15 March 2021)
- Haynes, Jeffrey. (May 1 2017). “Huntington’s ‘Clash of Civilization’ Today: Responses and Developments. E-International Reactions. https://www.e-ir.info/2018/05/01/huntingtons-clash-of-civilizations-today-responses-and-developments/. (Accessed 12 March 2021)
- Mertiu, Monica. (5-6 June 2017). Religious justification for terrorism. International conference RCIC’17:199-204
- Tarlow, Peter. (July 2017). “The interaction of religion and terrorism”. International Journal of Safety and Security in Tourism/Hospitaity:1-24
- Sultan, Tipu. (July 2, 2017). “Four months in preparation for the Holey Artisan attack”. Prothom Alo. http://en.prothomalo.com/bangladesh/preparing-for-the-Holey-Artisan-attack .(Accessed 12 March 2021)
- Weller, Christ. (1 November 2017). Startling maps show every terrorist attack worldwide over the last 20 years. Business Insider. https://www.businessinsider.com/global-terrorist-attacks-past-20-years-in-maps-2017-5
- WRIGHT, J.. Why is Contemporary Religious Terrorism Predominantly Linked to Islam? Four Possible Psychosocial Factors. Perspectives on Terrorism, North America, 10, feb. 2016. Available at: http://www.terrorismanalysts. Com /pt/index.php/pot/article/view/486
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License